Pre-Choices

European Cultural Pre-Choices 

The European Cultural Pre-Choices took place with a freely expandable list in 35 countries. The Choices will feature the first 30 Great Minds that qualified earlier.

 

Albania – Cultural Choices
Naim Frashëri (1846-1900) poet and writer
Ismail Kadare (1936- ) novelist and poet
Gjergj Fishta (1871-1940) poet
Dritëro Agolli (1931- ) poet and writer
Fan Noli (1882-1965) writer, scholar, and historian
Millosh Gjergj Nikolla (Migjeni) (1911-1938) poet and writer
Andon Zako Cajupi (1866-1930) poet and writer
Lasgush Poradeci (1899-1987) poet and writer
Dhimitër Pasko (1907-1967) writer and translator
Ndre Mjeda (1866-1937) poet
Martin Camaj (1925-1992) linguist, writer, and folklorist
Jeronim de Rada (1814-1903) writer
Sami Frasheri (1850-1904) writer, philosopher, and playwright
Asdreni (Aleksandër Stavre Drenova) (1872-1947) poet and writer
Marin Barleti (ca. 1450–60 – ca. 1512–13) historian
Pashko Vasa (1825-1892) writer, poet, and publicist
Musine Kokalari (1917-1983) prose writer
Gjon Buzuku (16th century) Catholic priest who wrote the first printed book in Albanian
Ali Asllani (1884-1966) poet
Luljeta Lieshanaku (1968- ) poet
Fatos Kongoli (1944- ) prose writer
Vedat Kokona (1913-1998) translator, writer, and lexicologist
Irma Kurti (1966- ) poet and writer
Ervin Hatibi (1974- ) poet, essayist, and painter
Ismail Qemali (1844-1919) writer
Inva Mula (1963- ) opera singer (soprano)
Saimir Pirgu (1981- ) opera singer (tenor)
Onufri (16th century) icon painter
Ermonela Jaho (1974- ) opera singer (soprano)
Jakov Xoxa (1923–1979) writer

Albania – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Albania – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Austria – Cultural Choices

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) composer
Stefan Zweig (1881-1942) novelist, playwright, and biographer
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) painter
Ludwig J. Wittgenstein (1889-1951) philosopher
Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) novelist
Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) physicist
Anton Bruckner (1824-1896) composer
Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992 ) economist and philosopher
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) composer
Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) economist
Ernst Jandl (1925-2000) poet
Viktor Frankl (1905-1997) neurologist and psychiatrist
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) composer
Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928-2000) artist and architect
Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926) poet and novelist
Karl Raimund Popper (1902-1994 ) philosopher
Franz Schubert (1797-1828) composer
Grete Trakl (1891-1917) pianist
Egon Schiele (1890-1918) painter
Friederike Mayröcker (1924- ) poet
Hermann Gmeiner (1919-1986) philanthropist and the founder of SOS Children’s Villages
Hans Carl Artmann (1921-2000) poet
Joseph Roth (1894-1939) novelist
Ingeborg Bachmann (Ruth Keller) (1926-1973) poet and writer
Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980) artist, poet, and playwright
Ernst Fuchs (1930-2015) painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, composer, and poet
Robert Musil (1880-1942) writer, essayist, mathematician, philosopher, and theater critic
Arik Brauer (1929- ) draughtsman, printmaker, poet, dancer, singer, and stage designer
Arnold Schönberg (1874-1951) composer

Austria – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Austria – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Belarus – Cultural Choices

Васі́ль Уладзі́міравіч Бы́каў /Vasil Bykaŭ/ (1924-2003) writer
Влади́мир Семёнович Коротке́вич /Uladzimir Karatkievich/ writer
Янка Купала /Janka Kupala/ (1882-1942) poet and writer
Святлана Аляксандраўна Алексіевіч /Svetlana Alexievich/ (1948- ) writer
Якуб Колас /Yakub Kolas/ (1882-1956) writer
Францішак Скарына /Francysk Skaryna/ (ca. 1490- 1552) humanist, physician, translator, and one of the first book printers in Eastern Europe
Алесь Адамовіч /Ales Adamovich/ (1927-1994) writer and critic
Рыго́р Іва́навіч Бараду́лін /Ryhor Baradulin/ (1935-2014) poet, essayist, and translator
Максім Багдановіч /Maksim Bahdanovič/ (1891-1917) poet and literary critic
Сымон Будны /Symon Budny/ (1530-1593) Bible translator, Church reformator
Іван Паўлавіч Мележ /Ivan Melezh/ (1921-1976) writer
Стефания Станюта /Stefaniya Stanyuta/ (1905-2000) theater and movie actress
Генадзь Мiкалаевiч Бураукiн /Hienadz Buraukin/ (1936-2014) poet
́нка Маўр /Yanka Maur/ (1883-1971) writer
Міхаіл Савіцкі /Mikhail Savitsky/ (1922-2010) painter
Марк Шагал /Marc Chagall/ (1887-1985) artist
Уладзі́мір Прако́павіч Някля́еў /Uladzimir Nyaklyayew/ (1946- ) writer
Валянцін Елізар’еў /Valentin Elizariev/ (1947- ) balletmaster and choreographer
Мікола Селяшчук /Nikolai Seleschuk / (1947-1996) artist
Анатоль Васільевіч Багатыроў /Anatoly Bogatyrev/ (1913-2003) composer
Уладзімір Іванавіч Карызна /Uladzimir Karyzna/ (1938-) poet and musical composer
Мiкола Ермаловiч /Nikolai Ermolovich/ (1921-2000) historian, writer, and poet
Мiхась Раманюк /Mikhail Romanyuk/ (1944-1997) art historian and ethnographer
Галіна Гарэлава /Halina Harelava/ (1951- ) composer
Уладзімір Аляксеевіч Арлоў /Vladimir Aljaseevich Orlov/ (1953- ) poet and writer
Хаім Саламонавіч Суцін/Chaïm Soutine/(1893-1943)painter
Сяргей Балянок /Sergei Balenok/ (1954- ) artist
Волотович Антон Степанович /Volotovich Anton Stepanovich/ (1940-1971) painter
Ніл Гілевіч /Nil Hilevich/ (1931-2016) poet
Вінцэнт Дунін-Марцінкевіч /Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich/ (c. 1808–1884) writer, poet, dramatist, and social activist

Belarus  –  European Cultural Pre-Choices
Belarus – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Belgium – Cultural Choices

Rene Magritte (1898-1967) painter
François Damiens (1973-) actor
Paul Delvaux (1897-1994) painter
Amélie Nothomb (1966- ) writer
Émile Verhaeren (1855-1916) poet and writer
Hugo Claus (1929-2008) novelist, poet, playwright, and film director
Rita Bertha Maria Demeester (1946-1993) poet and writer
Jacqueline Harpman (1929-2012) writer
Paul van Ostaijen (1896-1928) poet and writer
Georges Simenon (1903-1989) writer
Peyo (Pierre Culliford) (1928-1992) cartoonist
Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949) playwright, poet, and essayist
Georges Rodenbach (1855-1898) poet and novelist
Suzanne Lilar (1901-1992) essayist, novelist, and playwright
Dominique Rolin (1913-2012) novelist
Henry Bauchau (1913-2012) writer
Andreas Ernestus Josephus Claes (1885-1968) writer
Guido Pieter Theodorus Josephus Gezelle (1830-1899) writer and poet
Xavier Mellery (1845-1921) painter
Herman De Coninck (1944-1997) poet, essayist, and publisher
Hendrik Conscience (1812-1883) writer
François Weyergans (1941- ) writer
Hergé (Georges Prosper Remi) (1907-1983) cartoonist
Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-1987) poet
Dimitri Verhulst (1972- ) writer and poet
Michel de Ghelderode (1898-1962) dramatist
Jean Ray (Raymundus Joannes de Kremer) (1887-1964) writer
Jef Geeraerts (1930-2015) writer
Henri Michaux (1899-1984) poet, writer, and painter
Frans Masereel (1889-1972) painter and graphic artist

Belgium  –  European Cultural Pre-Choices
Belgium – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Bulgaria – Cultural Choices
Иван Минчов Вазов/Ivan Vazov/ (1850-1921) poet and writer
Христо Ботев /Hristo Botev/ (1848-1876) poet
Алеко Константинов /Aleko Konstantinov/ (1863-1897) writer
Пейо Яворов /Peyo Yavorov/ (1878-1914) poet
Елин Пелин /Elin Pelin/ (1877-1949) writer
Пенчо Петков Славейков /Pencho Slaveykov/ (1866-1912) poet
Йордан Стефанов Йовков /Yordan Yovkov/ (1880-1937) writer
Димчо Дебелянов /Dimcho Debelyanov/ (1887-1916) poet
Никола Йонков Вапцаров /Nikola Vaptsarov/ (1909-1942) poet
Христо Смирненски /Hristo Smirnenski/ (1898-1923) poet and prose writer
Елисавета Багряна /Elisaveta Bagriana/ (1893-1991) poet
Изидора Петрова Габе /Dora Gabe/ (1886-1983) poet
Любен Стойчев Каравелов /Lyuben Karavelov/ (1834-1879) writer
Атанас Далчев /Atanas Dalchev/ (1904-1978) poet, critic, and translator
Валери Петров /Valeri Petrov/ (1920-2014) poet, writer, and translator
Георги Иванов Марков /Georgi Markov/ (1929-1978) writer
Петя Стойкова Дубарова /Petya Dubarova/ (1962-1979) poet
Петър Дънов /Peter Deunov/ (1864-1944) philosopher
Йордан Радичков /Iordan Radichkov/ (1929-2004) writer and playwright
Чудомир /Димитър Христов Чорбаджиев/Chudomir/ (1890-1967) writer and painter
Радой Ралин /Radoy Ralin/ (1923-2004) poet and satirist
Christo /Христо Явашев/and Jeanne-Claude artists
Жул Паскин /Jules Pascin/ (1885-1930) artist
Иво Сиромахов /Ivo Siromahov/ (1971- ) writer, humorist, and dramatist
Иванка Б. Райнова /Yvanka B. Raynova/ (1959- ) philosopher, editor, and translator
Цветан Тодоров /Tzvetan Todorov/ (1939- ) historian, philosopher, and sociologist
Исак Паси /Isaac Passy/ (1929-2010) philosopher
Юлия Кръстева /Julia Kristeva/ (1941- ) philosopher, psychoanalyst, and writer
Асен Кожаров /Asen Kojarov/ (1911-1988) philosopher
Константин Георгиев Фотинов /Konstantin Fotinov / (1790-1858) writer and translator

Bulgaria – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Bulgaria – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Croatia – Cultural Choices

Miroslav Krleža (1893-1981) writer
Antun Gustav Matoš (1873-1914) poet, essayist, and travelogue writer
Tin Ujević (1891-1955) poet
Marko Marulić (1450-1524) poet
Ivan Meštrović (1883-1962) sculptor and architect
Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić (1874-1938) writer
Dobriša Cesarić (1902-1980) poet
Marija Jurić Zagorka (1873-1957) writer
Ivo Andrić (1892-1975) novelist, poet, and short story writer
August Šenoa (1838-1881) novelist
Dragutin Tadijanović (1905-2007) poet
Janko Polić Kamov (1886-1910) writer and poet
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) inventorand and physicist
Hanibal Lucić (1485-1553) poet and playwright
Vladimir Prelog (1906-1998) organic chemist
Leopold Ružička (1887-1976) scientist
Jakov Gotovac (1895-1982) composer and conductor
Roger Joseph Boscovich (1711-1787) physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher
Milutin Cihlar Nehajev (ca. 1880-1931) writer
Milan Begović (1876-1948) writer
Ante Kovačić (1854-1889) writer
Ivan Aralica (1930- ) novelist and essayist
Ante Tomić (1970- ) writer
Ivan Gundulić (1589-1638) poet
Luka Sorkočević (1734-1789) composer
Silvije Strahimir Kranjčević (1865-1908) poet
Blagoje Bersa (1873-1934) composer
Goran Tribuson (1948- ) prose and screenplay writer
Oton Gliha (1914-1999) artist
Maksimilijan Vanka (1889-1963) artist

Croatia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Croatia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Czechia – Cultural Choices
Karel Čapek (1890-1938) writer
Bedřich Smetana (1824-1884) composer
Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904) composer
Alfons Mucha (1860-1939) painter and decorative artist
Miloš Forman (1932- ) film director
Josef Lada (1887-1957) painter and writer
Jaroslav Seifert (1901-1986) writer and poet
Václav Havel (1936-2011) writer and philosopher
Bohumil Hrabal (1914-1997) writer
Karel Hynek Mácha (1810-1836) poet
John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) philosopher, pedagogue, and theologian
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850-1937) sociologist and philosopher
Jaroslav Hašek (1883-1923) writer, humorist, and satirist
Bohuslav Martinů (1890-1959) composer
Jan Neruda (1834-1891) writer and poet
Vladislav Vančura (1891-1942) writer
Milan Kundera (1929- ) writer, poet, and essayist
Jiří Menzel (1939- ) film director, theatre director, actor, and screenwriter
Jiří Wolker (1900-1924) poet and playwright
Michal Viewegh (1962- ) writer
Vladimír Páral (1932- ) writer
Leoš Janáček (1854-1928) composer
Ladislav Fuks (1923-1994) novelist
Josef Mysliveček (1737-1781) composer
Karel Teige (1900-1951) artist, writer, and critic
Ivan Klima (1931- ) novelist and playwright
Ludvík Vaculík (1926-2015) writer
Zdeněk Fibich (1850-1900) composer
Iva Pekárková (1963-) author
Vilém Flusser(1920-1991) philosopher and writer

Czechia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Czechia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Denmark – Cultural Choices

Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875) author
Tove Ditlevsen (1917-1976) poet
Jussi Adler-Olsen (1950- ) writer
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (1813-1855) philosopher, theologian, poet, and social critic
Karen Blixen (1885-1962) author
Martin Andersen Nexø (1869-1954) writer
Adam Oehlenschläger (1779-1850) poet and playwright
Naja Marie Aidt (1963- ) poet and writer
Jesper Wung-Sung (1971- ) author
Henrik Pontoppidan (1857-1943) writer
Yahya Hassan (1995- ) poet
Piet Hein (1905-1996) scientist, mathematician, inventor, designer, author, and poet
Klaus Rifbjerg (1931-2015) writer
Carl Nielsen (1865-1931) musician, conductor, and violinist
Kenneth Bøgh Andersen (1976- ) writer
Svend Aage Madsen (1939- ) author and playwright
Inger Christensen (1935-2009) poet, novelist, and essayist
Gerda Wegener (1886-1940) fine-artist, illustrator, and painter
Per Kirkeby (1938- ) painter, poet, film maker, and sculptor
Asger Jorn (1914-1973) painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, and author
Villy Sørensen (1929-2001) writer, philosopher, and literary critic
Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783-1872) philosopher and historian
Jens Peter Jacobsen (1847-1885) novelist, poet, and scientist
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (1873-1950) writer
Hans Kirk (1898-1962) author
Wilhelm Freddie (1909-1995) painter and sculptor
Anna Ancher (1859-1935) artist
Peder Severin Kroyer (1851-1909) painter
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg (1783-1853) painter
Bent Fabric (1924- ) pianist and composer

Denmark – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Denmark – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Estonia – Cultural Choices

Arvo Pärt (1935- ) composer
Andrus Kivirähk (1970- ) writer
Anton Hansen Tammsaare (1878-1940) writer
Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1803-1882) writer
Marie Under (1883-1980) poet
Neeme Järvi (1937- ) conductor
Juhan Liiv (1864-1913) poet
Oskar Luts (1887-1953) writer and playwright
Betti Alver (1906-1989) poet
Paavo Järvi (1962- ) conductor
Eduard Viiralt (1898-1954) graphic artist
Eduard Vilde (1865-1933) writer
Juhan Viiding (1948-1995) poet and actor
Konrad Mägi (1878-1925) painter
Doris Kareva (1958- ) poet, translator, and editor
Jaan Kross (1920-2007) writer
Kersti Merilaas (1913-1986) poet and translator
Viivi Luik (1946- ) poet and prosaist
Mati Unt (1944- ) writer, essayist, and theatre director
Jaan Kaplinski (1941- ) poet, philosopher, and culture critic
Arvo Valton (1935- ) writer
Paul Kuusberg (1916-2003) writer
Madis Kõiv (1929-2014) writer, philosopher, and physicist
Emil Tode (Tõnu Õnnepalu) (1962- ) poet and author
Albert Kivikas (1898-1978) writer
Kaur Kender (1971- ) author
Elo Viiding (1974- ) poet
Ervin Õunapuu (1956- ) prose writer, screenwriter, and film director
Mihkel Mutt (1953- ) writer, essayist, and editor
Ülo Sooster (1924-1970) painter

Estonia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Estonia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Finland – Cultural Choices
Jean Sibelius (1965-1957) composer and violinist
Tove Jansson (1914-2001) novelist, painter, and illustrator
Mikael Agricola (1510-1557) clergyman, “father of literary Finnish”
Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804-1877) poet
Eino Leino (1878-1926) poet
Mika Waltari (1908-1979) writer
Helene Schjerfbeck (1862-1946) painter
Olavi Virta (1915-1972) singer
Sofi Oksanen (1977- ) writer
Esa-Pekka Salonen (1958- ) conductor and composer
Ilkka Remes (1962- ) writer
Arto Paasilinna (1942- ) writer
Georg Henrik von Wright (1916-2003) philosopher
Eeva Kilpi (1928- ) writer
Kirsi Kunnas (1924- ) poet
Edward Westermarck (1862-1939) philosopher and sociologist
Jaakko Hintikka (1929-2015) philosopher and logician
Veijo Meri (1928-2015) writer
Mirkka Rekola (1931-2014) writer
Timo K. Mukka (1944-1973) writer, poet, and painter
Einojuhani Rautavaara (1928- ) composer
Veikko Antero Koskenniemi (1885-1962) poet
Pentti Saarikoski (1937-1983) poet
Eeva-Liisa Manner (1921-1995) poet, playwright, and translator
Paavo Haavikko (1931-2008) poet and playwright
Erik Bergman (1911-2006) composer
Robert Kajanus (1856-1933) conductor and composer
Outi Heiskanen (1937- ) graphic artist
Elias Lönnrot (1802-1884) physician, philologist, and writer
Akseli Gallen Kallela (1865-1931) painter

Finland – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Finland – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

France – Cultural Choices

Frédéric Bastiat (1801-1850) classical liberal theorist, political economist
Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832) economist
Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) political thinker and historian
Simone Weil (1909-1943) philosopher
Pascal Salin (1939- ) economist
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry (1900-1944) writer and poet
Voltaire (1694-1778) writer, historian, and philosopher
Victor Hugo (1802-1885) poet, novelist, and dramatist
Albert Camus (1913-1960) philosopher and author
Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) writer, existentialist philosopher, and social theorist
René Descartes (1596-1650) philosopher, mathematician, and scientist
Jules Verne (1828-1905) novelist, poet, and playwright
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (1727-1781) economist and statesman
Michel Foucault (1926-1984) philosopher, social theorist, philologist and literary critic
Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) novelist and playwright
Marie Curie (1867-1934) physicist and chemist
Charles Maurras (1868-1952) author, poet, and critic
Émile Zola (1840-1902) novelist and playwright
Claude Debussy (1862-1918) composer
Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893) writer
Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) philosopher, writer, political activist, and biographer
Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) poet
Charles de Montesquieu (1689-1755) political philosopher
Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) writer
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) chemist and microbiologist
Marcel Proust (1871-1922) novelist, critic, and essayist
Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) sociologist, anthropologist, and philosopher
Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) composer and pianist
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) philosopher and essayist
Denis Diderot (1713-1784) philosopher and writer

France – European Cultural Pre-Choices
France – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Georgia – Cultural Choices

შოთა რუსთაველი /Shota Rustaveli/ (12th-century) poet
გალაკტიონ ტაბიძე /Galaktion Tabidze/ (1892-1959) poet
ნოდარ დუმბაძე /Nodar Dumbadze/ (1928-1984) writer
გია ყანჩელი /Giya Kancheli/ (1935- ) composer
გურამ დოჩანაშვილი /Guram Dochanashvili/ (1939- ) writer
ილია ჭავჭავაძე /Ilia Chavchavadze/ (1837-1907) writer, poet, and publisher
ოთარ ჭილაძე /Otar Chiladze/ (1933-2009) writer
ვაჟა-ფშაველა /Vazha-Pshavela/ (1861-1915) poet and writer
გრიგოლ რობაქიძე /Grigol Robakidze/ (1880-1962) writer and publicist
აკა მორჩილაძე /Aka Morchiladze/ (1966- ) writer and literary historian
სულხან ცინცაძე /Sulkhan Tsintsadze/ (1925-1991) composer
ნათელა დამიანეს ასული სვანიძე /Natela Svanidze/ (1926- ) composer
გიული გივის ასული ალასანია /Giuli Alasania/ (1946- ) historian and writer
მერაბ მამარდაშვილი /Merab Mamardashvili/ (1930-1990) philosopher
ზვიად გამსახურდია (1939-1993) scientist-philologist, writer and translator
დიმიტრი არაყიშვილი /Dimitri Arakishvili/ (1873-1953) composer
ზაქარია ფალიაშვილი / Zacharia Paliashvili / (1871-1933) composer
გიორგი ივანეს ძე გაბაშვილი / Gigo Gabashvili / painter
აკაკი წერეთელი /Akaki Tsereteli/ (1840-1915) poet
ევგენი მიქელაძე /Evgeni Mikeladze/ (1903-1937) conductor
ელენე ახვლედიანი /Elene Akhvlediani/ (1898-1975) painter and graphic artist
ტიციან ტაბიძე /Titsian Tabidze/ (1895-1937) poet
ნიკო ნიკოლაძე /Niko Nikoladze/ (1843-1928) writer
მელიტონ ბალანჩივაძე /Meliton Balanchivadze/ (1862-1937) opera singer and composer
მერაბ აბრამიშვილი /Merab Abramishvili/ (1957-2006) painter
ჯემალ გოკიელი /Jemal Gokieli/ (1920-1991) conductor
იოსებ გრიშაშვილი /Ioseb Grishashvili/ (1889-1965) poet and historian
გია ბუღაძე /Gia Bugadze/ (1956- ) artist
ბესიკი /Besiki/ (1750-1791) poet
შალვა ქიქოძე /Shalva Kikodze/ (1894-1921) painter, graphic artist, and theatre decorator

Georgia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Georgia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Germany - Cultural Choices

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) writer
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) philosopher, cultural critic, and poet
Albert Einstein (1897-1955) theoretical physicist
Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805) poet, philosopher, physician, and historian
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) philosopher
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) composer
Franz Kafka (1883-1924) writer
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) composer
Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) poet and playwright
Thomas Mann (1875-1955) novelist, social critic, philanthropist, and essayist
Karl Marx (1818-1883) philosopher, economist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist
Hermann Hesse (1877-1969) poet, novelist, and painter
Jacob(1785-1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786-1859) linguists, lexicographers and writers
Erich Kästner (1899-1974) author, poet, screenwriter, and satirist
Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) poet, essayist, and literary critic
Martin Luther (1483-1546) seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation
Albrecht Dürer (1455-1528) painter and printmaker
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) philosopher
Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) philosopher and political theorist
Richard Wagner (1813-1883) composer
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781) writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic
Novalis (Friedrich Leopold von Hardenberg) (1772-1801) poet, author, and philosopher
Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) painter
Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969) philosopher, sociologist, and composer
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) philosopher
Georg Büchner (1813-1837) dramatist and writer
Friedrich Hölderlin (1770-1843) poet
Georg Friedrich Händel (1685-1759) composer
Heinrich Böll (1917-1985) writer
Kurt Tucholsky (1890-1935) satirist and writer

Germany – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Germany – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Greece – Cultural Choices

Σωκράτης /Socrates/ (470-399 BC) philosopher
Αριστοτέλης /Aristotle/ (384-322 BC) philosopher and scientist
Όμηρος /Homer/ (8th century BC) poet
Κ.Π. Καβάφης /Constantine P. Cavafy/ (1963-1933) poet
Νίκος Καζαντζάκης /Nikos Kazantzakis/ (1883-1957) writer
Οδυσσέας Ελύτης /Odysseas Elytis/ (1911-1996) poet
Πλάτων /Plato/ (428-347 BC) philosopher
Γιώργος Σεφέρης /Giorgos Seferis/ (1900-1971) poet
Σοφοκλῆς /Sophocles/ (497-405 BC) tragedian
Γιάννης Ρίτσος /Yiannis Ritsos/ (1909-1990) poet
Κώστας Καρυωτάκης /Kostas Karyotakis/ (1896-1928) poet
Εὐριπίδης /Euripides/ (c. 480-406 BC) tragedian
Κική Δημουλά /Kiki Dimoula/ (1952- ) poet
Αἰσχύλος /Aeschylus/ (c. 525-455 BC) tragedian
Ἡρόδοτος /Herodotus/ (c. 484-425 BC) historian
Διονύσιος Σολωμός /Dionysios Solomos/ (1798-1857) poet
Αριστοφάνης /Aristophanes/ (c. 446-386 BC) playwright
Τάσος Λειβαδίτης /Tasos Livaditis/ (1922-1988) poet
Νίκος Καββαδίας /Nikos Kavvadias/ (1910-1975) poet and writer
Ἀλέξανδρος Παπαδιαμάντης /Alexandros Papadiamantis/ (1851-1911) poet and writer
Άγγελος Σικελιανός /Angelos Sikelianos/ (1884-1951) poet and playwright
Θουκυδίδης /Thucydides/ (c.460-400 BC) historian
Έπίκουρος /Epicurus/ (341-270 BC) philosopher
Διογένης ὁ Σινωπεύς /Diogenes of Sinope/ (c. 412-323 BC) philosopher
Ξενοφώντας /Xenophon/ (c. 430-354 BC) historian
Ιάκωβος Καμπανέλλης /Iakovos Kambanellis/ (1922-2011) poet and writer
Ανδρέας Εμπειρίκος /Andreas Embirikos/ (1901-1975) poet and psychoanalyst
Γιάννης Τσαρούχης /Yannis Tsarouchis/ (1910-1989) painter
Γιάννης Σπυρόπουλος /Yiannis Spyropoulos/ (1912-1990) painter
Σώτη Τριανταφύλλου /Soti Triantafyllou/ (1957- ) writer and historian

Greece – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Greece – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Hungary – Cultural Choices

Attila József  (1905-1937) poet
Miklós Radnóti  (1909-1944) poet
Endre Ady  (1877-1919) poet
Sándor Petőfi  (1823-1849) poet
János Arany (1817-1882) writer, poet, and translator
Dezső Kosztolányi  (1885-1936) poet and prose-writer
Sándor Weöres  (1913-1989) poet and author
István Örkény  (1912-1979) writer
Sándor Márai  (1900-1989) writer
Jenő Rejtő  (1905-1943) pulp fiction writer and playwright
Albert Wass  (1908-1998) novelist and poet
Frigyes Karinthy  (1887-1938) author, playwright, poet, and translator
Mihály Babits  (1883-1941) poet, writer and translator
Mór Jókai  (1825-1904) dramatist and novelist
Béla Bartók  (1881-1945) composer and pianist
Ferenc Kölcsey  (1790-1838) poet, literary critic and orator
Mihály Munkácsy  (1844-1900) painter
Zoltán Kodály  (1882-1967) composer, ethnomusicologist, pedagogue
János Pilinszky  (1921-1981) poet
Imre Madách  (1823-1864) poet and writer
Géza Gárdonyi  (1863-1922) writer, poet and playwright
Tivadar Csontváry Kosztka  (1853-1919) painter
Magda Szabó  (1917-2007) writer
Mihály Csokonai Vitéz  (1773-1805) poet
Mihály Vörösmarty  (1800-1855) poet and dramatist
Elek Benedek  (1859-1929) writer
Lőrinc Szabó  (1900-1957) poet and literary translator
Éva Janikovszky (1926-2003) writer, poet, and editor
Ferenc Erkel  (1810-1893) composer, conductor, and pianist
Árpád Tóth  (1886-1928) poet

Hungary – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Hungary – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Iceland – Cultural Choices

Halldór Laxness (1902-1998) writer, poet, and essayist
Jónas Hallgrímsson (1807-1845) poet
Jóhannes Sveinsson Kjarval (1885-1972) painter
Guðni Th. Jóhannesson (1968- ) historian
Matthías Jochumsson (1838-1920) poet
Nína Tryggvadóttir (1913-1968) artist
Þórbergur Þórðarson (c. 1888-1974) author and Esperantist
Ólafur Arnalds (1986- ) multi-instrumentalist
Svava Jakobsdóttir (1930-2004) writer
Ragnar Axelsson (1958- ) photographer
Þorsteinn Gylfason (1942-2005) philosopher, translator, musician, and poet
Stefán Hörður Grímsson (1919-2002) poet
Guðbergur Bergsson (1932- ) writer
Steinunn Sigurðardóttir (1950- ) poet and novelist
Sigurður Nordal (1886-1974) scholar and writer
Jón Nordal (1926- ) composer and pianist
Louisa Matthíasdóttir (1917-2000) artist
Guðmundur Kamban (1888-1945) playwright and novelist
Kristín Ómarsdóttir (1962- ) poet and writer
Snorri Hjartarson (1906-1986) poet
Hannes Pétursson (1931- ) poet and writer
Sigurður Pálsson (1948- ) author and translator
Atli Heimir Sveinsson (1938- ) composer
Björgvin Guðmundsson (1891-1961) composer
Einar Bragi Sigurðsson (1921-2005) poet and publisher
Ingibjörg Haraldsdóttir (1942- ) poet and translator
Haukur Tómasson (1960- ) composer
Olafur Eliasson (1967- ) artist
Sjón (Sigurjón Birgir Sigurðsson) (1962- ) poet, novelist, and lyricist
Einar Már Guðmundsson (1954- ) novelist

Iceland – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Iceland – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Italy – Cultural Choices

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) polymath
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) poet
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) astronomer, physicist, philosopher, and mathematician
Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837) poet, philosopher, essayist, and philologist
Caravaggio (1571-1610) painter
Alessandro Manzoni (1785-1873) poet and novelist
Michelangelo (1475-1564) painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer
Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) scholar and poet
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) writer and poet
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) historian, politician, philosopher, humanist, and writer
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) composer
Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936) dramatist, novelist, poet, and writer
Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painter
Primo Levi (1919-1987) chemist and writer
Giotto di Bodone (1266-1337) painter
Umberto Eco (1932-2016) novelist, literary critic, philosopher, and semiotician
San Francesco d’Assisi (1181-1226) poet
Salvatore Quasimodo (1901-1968) author and poet
Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520) painter and architect
Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) physicist
Cristoforo Colombo (1450-1506) explorer, navigator, and colonizer
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) designer and architecture
Italo Calvino (1923-1985) writer
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer
Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) composer
Alberto Angela (1962- ) paleontologist, scientific popularizer, and writer
Torquato Tasso (1544-1595) poet
Oriana Fallaci (1929-2006) author
Alessandro Baricco (1958- ) writer, director, and performer
Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533) poet

Italy – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Italy – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Latvia – Cultural Choices

Imants Ziedonis (1933-2013) poet
Raimonds Pauls (1936- ) composer and pianist
Rainis (Jānis Pliekšāns) (1865-1929) poet, playwright, and translator
Aspazija (Elza Pliekšāne) (1865-1943) poet and playwright
Ojārs Vācietis (1933-1983) writer and poet
Krišjānis Barons (1835-1923) writer, folklorist, and linguist
Imants Kalniņš (1941- ) composer
Rudolf Blaumanis (1862-1908) writer, and playwright
Māra Zālīte (1952- ) writer
Emils Darzins (1875-1910) composer, conductor, and music critic
Aleksandrs Čaks (1901-1950) poet and writer
Eduards Veidenbaums (1867-1982) poet and translator
Janis Rozentāls (1866-1916) painter
Vilhelms Purvītis (1872-1945) painter
Vizma Belševica (1931-2005) poet, writer, and translator
Klāvs Elsbergs (1959-1987) poet and translator
Auseklis (Miķelis Krogzemis) (1850-1879) poet
Kārlis Baumanis (1835-1905) composer
Andrejs Pumpurs (1841-1902) poet
Edvarts Virza (1883-1940) writer
Māra Cielēna (1954- ) writer
Mariss Jansons (1943- ) conductor
Leons Briedis (1949- ) poet, novelist, essayist, literary critic, and translator
Edward Leedskalnin (1887-1951) sculptor
Gustav Klutsis (1895-1938) photographer
Pēteris Vasks (1946) composer
Ēriks Ešenvalds (1977- ) composer
Emilis Melngailis (1874-1954) composer and folklorist
Jāzeps Vītols (1863-1948) composer
Jēkabs Kazaks (1895-1920) painter

Latvia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Latvia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Lithuania – Cultural Choices
Maironis (1862-1932) poet
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875-1911) composer and painter
Vincas Kudirka (1858-1899) poet and physician
Balys Sruoga (1896-1947) poet
Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas (1893-1967) composer
Salomėja Nėris (1904-1945) poet
Žemaitė (Julija Beniuševičiūtė-Žymantienė) (1845-1921) writer
Antanas Škėma (1910-1961) writer
Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius (1882-1954) writer, poet, novelist, playwright, and philologist
Jonas Basanavičius (1851-1927) physician
Vytautas Račickas (1952- ) prose writer and editor
Vydūnas (Wilhelm Storost) (1868-1953) poet, humanist, and philosopher
Jurga Ivanauskaitė (1961-2007) writer
Ugnė Karvelis (1935-2002) writer
Juozas Gruodis (1884-1948) composer
Saulius Mykolaitis (1966-2006) actor, songwriter, and bard singer
Ruta Sepetys (1967- ) writer
Romualdas Granauskas (1939-2014) author and dramaturg
Juozas Grušas (1901-1986) writer, editor, dramatist, and playwright
Kazys Varnelis (1917-2010) painter
Lazdynų Pelėda (1867-1926) Lithuanian sisters writers
Andrius Tapinas (1977- ) writer
Chaim Jacob Lipchitz (1891-1973) artist
Algis Uždavinys (1962-2010) philosopher and scholar
Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995) philosopher
Vidmantas Bartulis (1954- ) composer
Bronius Kutavičius (1932- ) composer
Janina Degutytė (1928-1990) poet
Vytautas Kasiulis (1918-1995) painter
Boris Schatz (1866-1932) artist and sculptor

Lithuania – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Lithuania – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Luxembourg – Cultural Choices
Michel Rodange (1827-1876) writer and poet
Batty Weber (1860–1940) author
Michel Lentz (1820-1893) poet
Aline Mayrisch de Saint-Hubert (1874-1947) women’s rights campaigner, philanthropist
Dicks (Edmond de la Fontaine) (1823-1891) poet and lyricist
Sosthène Weis (1872-1941) artist
Laurent Menager (1835-1902) composer, choirmaster, organist, and conductor
Josy Braun (1938-2012) writer and translator
Guy Rewenig (1947- ) author and novelist
Jean-Pierre Pescatore (1793-1855) art collector and philanthropist
Claus Cito (1882-1965) sculptor
Joseph Kutter (1894-1941) painter
Félix Thyes (1830–1855) writer
Jhemp Hoscheit (1951- ) writer
Jean Krier (1949-2013) poet
Anise Koltz (1928- ) poet and writer
Nikolaus “Nik” Welter (1871-1951) writer, playwright, poet, professor, literary critic
Edward Steichen (1879-1973) photographer, painter, and museum curator
Michel Stoffel (1903–1963) artist and author
Dominique Lang (1874-1919) painter
Michel Engels (1851–1901) illustrator, painter, and art teacher
Nicolas Liez (1809-1892) painter, sculptor, and architect
Nico Helminger (1953- ) writer and poet
Georges Hausemer (1957- ) writer
Roger Manderscheid (1933-2010) writer
Pierre Brandebourg (1824-1878) painter and photographer
Jean Muller (1979- ) pianist
Su-Mei Tse (1973- ) musician, artist, and photographer
Arno J. Mayer (1926- ) historian
Marianne Majerus (1956- ) photographer

Luxembourg – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Luxembourg – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Macedonia – Cultural Choices
Крсте Петков Мисирков /Krste Misirkov/ (1874-1926) slavist and historian
Koчо Рацин /Kočo Racin/ (1908-1943) author
Петре Мито Андреевски /Petre Mito Andreevski/ (1934-2006) poet and writer
Славко Јаневски /Slavko Janevski/ (1920-2000) poet, prose, and script writer
Григор Прличев /Grigor Parlichev/ (1829-1893) writer and translator
Оливера Николова /Olivera Nikolova/ (1936- ) author
Ацо Шопов /Aco Šopov/ (1923-1982) poet
Стале Попов /Stole Popov/ (1974- ) film director
Васил Иљоски /Vasil Iljoski/ (1902-1995) writer and dramatist
Блаже Конески /Blazhe Koneski/ (1921-1993) poet, writer, and translator
Горан Стефановски /Goran Stefanovski/ (1952- ) dramatist and scriptwriter
Ристо Крле /Risto Krle/ (1900-1975) playwright
Видое Подгорец /Vidoe Podgorec/ (1934-1997) writer and poet
Никола Мартиноски /Nikola Martinoski/ (1903-1973) painter
Живко Чинго /Živko Čingo/ (1935-1987) writer
Гане Тодоровски /Gane Todorovski/ (1929-2010) poet, translator, writer, and historian
Тодор Скаловски /Todor Skalovski/ (1909-2004) composer and conductor
Мирослав Грчев / Miroslav Grčev/ (1955- ) architect, graphic designer, and caricaturist
Томе Серафимовски /Tome Serafimovski/ (1935-2016) sculptor
Маја Апостолоска /Maja Apostoloska/ (1976- ) poet, essayist, and literary critic
Димитрија Чуповски /Dimitrija Čupovski/ (1878-1940) lexicographer
Александар Џамбазов /Aleksandar Džambazov/ (1936- ) conductor and composer
Коле Чашуле /Kole Čašule/ (1921-2009) essayist, dramatist, and short story writer
Анте Поповски /Ante Popovski/ (1931-2003) poet, essayist, and translator
Раде Силјан /Rade Siljan/ (1950- ) poet, essayist, and translator
Илија Николовски Луј / Ilija Nikolovski-Louis/ (1913-1973) composer
Иван Петрушевски /Ivan Ivan Petrusevski/(1984- ) graphic designer
Ѓорѓи Пулевски /Georgi Pulevski/ (1817-1895) writer
Стојан Стојков /Stojan Stojkov/ (1941- ) composer
Димитрије Бужаровски /Dimitrije Bužarovski/ (1952- ) composer

Macedonia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Macedonia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Netherlands – Cultural Choices
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) painter
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) philosopher
Hella S. Haasse (1918-2011) writer
Annie M. G. Schmidt (1911-1995) writer
Pieter Bruegel (1525-1569) painter
Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516) painter
Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) painter
Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) painter
Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931) painter, architect, poet, and writer
Willem Frederik Hermans (1921-1995) writer and geophysicist
Michel van der Aa (1970- ) composer
Multatuli (Eduard Douwes Dekker) (1820-1887) writer
Julius Röntgen (1855-1932) composer
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) philosopher
Simon Vestdijk (1898-1971) writer
Jacob van Lennep (1802-1868) poet and writer
Maurits Cornelis Escher (1898-1972) graphic artist
Bertus Aafjes (1914-1993) poet and writer
Cees Nooteboom (1933- ) novelist and poet
Harry Mulisch (1927-2010) writer
Herman Heijermans (1864-1924) writer
Willem Kloos (1859-1938) poet
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) zoologist
Nescio (Jan Hendrik Frederik Grönloh) (1882-1961) writer
Jacob Cats (1577-1660) poet and humorist
Paul Biegel (1925-2006) writer
Jan van Goyen (1596-1656) painter
Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (1881-1966) mathematician and philosopher
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562-1621) composer
Gerard Reve (1923-2006) poet and writer

Netherlands – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Netherlands – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Norway – Cultural Choices
Edvard Munch (1863-1944) painter
Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) composer and pianist
Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) playwright, theatre director, and poet
Knut Hamsun (1859-1952) writer
Amalie Skram (1846-1905) writer
Alexander Kielland (1849-1906) writer
Jo Nesbø (1960- ) writer
Sigrid Undset (1882-1949) novelist
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (1832-1910) writer
Thorbjørn Egner (1912-1990) playwright, songwriter, and illustrator
Henrik Wergeland (1808-1845) writer
Jens Bjørneboe (1920-1976) writer
Arne Næss (1912-2009) philosopher
Tarjei Vesaas (1897-1970) poet and novelist
Herbjørg Wassmo (1942- ) author
Jon Fosse (1959- ) author and dramatist
Ludvig Holberg (1684-1754) writer, essayist, philosopher, historian, and playwright
Hulda Garborg (1862-1934) writer, poet, folk dancer, and theatre instructor
Olav Aukrust (1883-1929) poet and teacher
Kjell Aukrust (1920-2002) author, poet, and artist
Harald Sohlberg (1869-1935) painter
Rolf Nesch (1893-1975) artist
Olaf Wilhelm Isaachsen (1835-1893) painter
Ketil Bjørnstad (1952- ) pianist
Aasmund Olavsson Vinje (1818-1870) poet
Gustav Vigeland (1869-1943) sculptor
Lise Myhre (1975- ) cartoonist
Magne Furuholmen (1962- ) musician and visual artist
Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (1812-1885) writer and scholar
Jon Elster (1940- ) social and political theorist

Norway – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Norway – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Poland – Cultural Choices
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) mathematician and astronomer
Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849) composer
Stanisław Lem (1921-2006) writer
Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) novelist
Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855) poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, and translator
Pope Saint John Paul II (Karol Józef Wojtyła) (1920-2005) author
Sławomir Mrożek (1930-2013) dramatist, writer, and cartoonist
Andrzej Wajda (1926- ) film and theatre director
Zdzisław Beksiński (1929-2005) painter, photographer, and sculptor
Wisława Szymborska (1923-2012) poet, essayist, and translator
Cyprian Kamil Norwid (1821-1883) poet, dramatist, painter, and sculptor
Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (1885-1939) writer, painter, philosopher, and photographer
Bruno Schulz (1892-1942) writer, fine artist, literary critic, and art teacher
Olga Boznańska (1865-1940) painter
Magdalena Abakanowicz (1930- ) sculptor and fiber artist
Tadeusz Kantor (1915-1990) painter
Roman Ingarden (1893-1970) philosopher
Bolesław Prus (1847-1912) writer and philosopher
Ryszard Kapuściński (1932-2007) reporter, photographer, poet, and writer
Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska (1891-1945) author
Krzysztof Penderecki (1933- ) composer
Stefan Banach (1892-1945) mathematician
Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941) pianist and composer
Agnieszka Osiecka (1936-1997) poet and writer
Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński (1905-1953) poet
Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński (1921-1944) poet
Aleksander Fredro (1793-1876) poet and playwright
Władysław Tatarkiewicz (1886-1980) philosopher
Krzysztof Kieślowski (1941-1996) film director, and screenwriter
Julian Tuwim (1894-1953) poet

Poland – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Poland – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Portugal – Cultural Choices
Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935) poet, writer, literary critic, translator, and philosopher
Luís de Camões (1524-1580) poet
José Saramago (1922-2010) writer
Eça de Queirós (1845-1900) writer
Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen (1919-2004) poet and writer
Florbela Espanca (1894-1930) poet
José de Almada Negreiros (1893-1970) artist
Amadeo de Souza Cardoso (1887-1918) painter
António Lobo Antunes (1942- ) novelist
João César Monteiro (1939-2003) film director, actor, writer, and film critic
Herberto Hélder (1930-2015) poet
Alexandre O’Neill (1924-1986) writer and poet
Damião de Góis (1502-1574) historian and humanist
Vergílio Ferreira (1916-1996) writer
Carlos Seixas (1704-1742) composer
José Vianna da Motta (1868-1948) pianist, teacher, and composer
António Sérgio de Sousa (1883 – 1969) educationist, philosopher, sociologist, and essayist
José Régio (1901-1969) writer
Agustina Bessa-Luís (1922- ) writer
Agostinho da Silva (1906-1994) philosopher, essayist and writer
Bernardo Rodrigues Nogueira (c. 1695-1748) philosopher
Frederico Lourenço (1963- ) writer and translator
Aquilino Ribeiro (1885-1963) writer and diplomat
Lídia Jorge (1946- ) novelist and author
Alexandre Herculano (1810-1877) novelist and historian
Luiz Pacheco (1925-2008) writer, publisher, polemicist, and literary critic
Alves Redol (1911-1969) writer
Ana Luísa Amaral (1956- ) author and translator
Camilo Castelo Branco (1825-1890) writer
Alfredo Keil (1850-1907) composer

Portugal – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Portugal – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Romania – Cultural Choices
Mihai Eminescu (1850-1889) poet
George Bacovia (1881-1957) poet
George Enescu (1881-1955) composer, violinist, pianist, and conductor
Ion Luca Caragiale (1852-1912) playwright, short story writer,and poet
Mircea Eliade (1907-1986) philosopher
Lucian Blaga (1895-1961) philosopher, poet, playwright, and novelist
Tudor Arghezi (1880-1967) writer
Ion Creangă (1837-1889) writer
Constantin Brâncuși (1876-1957) sculptor, painter, and photographer
Nichita Stănescu (1933-1983) poet
Nicolae Iorga (1871-1940) historian, literary critic, memoirist, poet, and playwright
Nicolae Grigorescu (1838-1907) painter
Nicolae Tonitza (1886-1940) painter
Camil Petrescu (1894-1957) playwright, novelist, philosopher, and poet
Aurel Vlaicu (1882-1913) engineer, inventor, and airplane constructor
Mircea Cărtărescu (1956- ) poet, novelist, and essayist
Henri Coanda (1886-1972) inventor and aerodynamics pioneer
Nicolae Paulescu (1869-1931) physiologist
Petrache Poenaru (1799-1875) inventor
Toma T. Socolescu (1883-1960) architect
Ciprian Porumbescu (1853-1883) composer
Octavian Paler (1926-2007) writer
Eugen Ionesco (1909-1994) playwright
Dimitrie Anghel (1872-1914) poet
Stefan Odobleja (1902-1978) scientist
Iancu Dumitrescu (1944- ) composer
Dimitrie Paciurea (1873-1875) sculptor
Virgil Nemoianu (1940- ) essayist, literary critic, and philosopher
Tudor Vianu (1898-1964) literary critic, art critic, poet, philosopher, and translator
Ana Blandiana (1942- ) poet and essayist

Romania – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Romania – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Russia – Cultural Choices
Лев Николаевич Толстой /Leo Tolstoy/ (1828-1910) writer
Александр Сергеевич Пушкин /Alexander Pushkin/ (1799-1837) poet and writer
Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский /Fyodor Dostoevsky/ (1821-1881) novelist, short story writer, essayist, and philosopher
Пётр Ильич Чайковский /Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky/ (1840-1893) composer
Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков /Mikhail Bulgakov/ (1891-1940) writer
Антон Павлович Чехов /Anton Chekhov/ (1860-1904) writer and playwright
Бори́с Леони́дович Пастерна́к /Boris Pasternak/ (1890-1960) poet and writer
Анна Ахматова /Anna Akhmatova/ (1889-1966) poet
Николай Васильевич Гоголь /Nikolai Gogol/ (1809-1852) writer
Марина Ивановна Цветаева /Marina Tsvetaeva/ (1892-1941) poet
Серге́й Алекса́ндрович Есе́нин /Sergei Yesenin/ (1895-1925) poet
Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский /Igor Stravinsky/ (1882-1971) composer and pianist
Александр Исаевич Солженицын /Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn/ (1918-2008) writer
Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Бло́к /Alexander Blok/ (1880-1921) poet
Ива́н Алексе́евич Бу́нин /Ivan Bunin/ (1870-1953) writer
Алекса́ндр Порфи́рьевич Бороди́н /Alexander Borodin/ (1833-1887) composer and chemist
Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков /Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov/ (1844-1908) composer
Модест Петрович Мусоргский /Modest Mussorgsky/ (1839-1881) composer
Ива́н Серге́евич Турге́нев /Ivan Turgenev/ (1818-1883) writer
Иосиф Александрович Бродский /Joseph Brodsky/ (1940-1996) poet and essayist
Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский /Vladimir Mayakovsky/ (1893-1930) poet, playwright, and artist
Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в /Maxim Gorky/ (1868-1936) writer
Булат Шалвович Окуджава /Bulat Okudzhava/ (1924-1997) poet, writer, and musician
Бори́с Миха́йлович Кусто́диев /Boris Kustodiev/ (1878-1927) painter
Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн /Sergei Eisenstein/ (1898-1948) film director and film theorist
Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Шо́лохов /Mikhail Sholokhov/ (1905-1984) writer
Василий Васильевич Кандинский /Wassily Kandinsky/ (1866-1944) painter and art theorist
Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич /Dmitri Shostakovich/ (1906-1975) composer
Казимир Северинович Малевич /Kazimir Malevich/ (1878-1935) painter and art theoretician
Зинаи́да Евге́ньевна Серебряко́ва /Zinaida Serebriakova/ (1884-1967) painter

Russia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Russia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Serbia – Cultural Choices
Вук Стефановић Караџић /Vuk Karadžić/ (1787-1864) philologist and linguist
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) inventor and physicist
Лазаp К. Лазаревић /Laza Lazarević/ (1851-1891) writer, psychiatrist, and neurologist
Милош Црњански /Miloš Crnjanski/ (1893-1977) poet and writer
Милорад Павић /Milorad Pavić/ (1929-2009) writer, poet, and literary historian
Михајло Пупин /Mihajlo Pupin/ (1858-1935) physicist and physical chemist
Лаза Костић /Laza Kostić/ (1841-1910) poet, writer, and philosopher
Исидора Секулић /Isidora Sekulić/ (1877-1958) writer
Јован Јовановић Змај /Jovan Jovanović Zmaj / (1833-1904) poet, writer, and physician
Данило Киш /Danilo Kiš/ (1935-1989) novelist, short story writer, and poet
Иво Андрић /Ivo Andrić/ (1892-1975) novelist, poet, and short story writer
Душко Радовић /Duško Radović/ (1922-1984) writer
Јанко Веселиновић / Janko Veselinovic/ (1862-1905) writer
Бранислав Нушић /Branislav Nušić/ (1864-1938) playwright, satirist, and novelist
Јован Дучић /Jovan Ducic/ (1871-1943) poet
Сава Шумановић /Sava Sumanovic/ (1896-1942) painter
Момчило Момо Капор /Momo Kapor/ (1937-2010) novelist and painter
Растко Петровић /Rastko Petrović/ (1898-1949) poet and writer
Stefan Milenković (1977- ) violinist
Драгош Калајић /Dragoš Kalajić/ (1943-2005) painter and writer
Милутин Миланковић /Milutin Milanković/ (1879-1958) mathematician
Вида Огњеновић /Vida Ognjenović/ (1941- ) writer and theater director
Милан Ракић /Milan Rakic/ (1876-1938) poet
Светлана Велмар-Јанковић /Svetlana Velmar-Janković/ (1933-2014) writer
Јован Цвијић /Jovan Cvijić / (1865-1927) geographer and ethnologist
Емир Кустурица /Emir Kusturica/ (1954- ) filmmaker, actor, and musician
Лукијан Мушицки /Lukijan Mušicki/ (1777-1837) poet and writer
Светислав Басара /Svetislav Basara/ (1953- ) writer
Душан Радић /Dušan Radić/ (1929-2010) composer
Борислав Пекић /Borislav Pekić/ (1930-1992) novelist

Serbia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Serbia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Slovakia – Cultural Choices
Ludovit Štur (1815-1856) author of the Slovak language standard
Martin Kukučín (1860-1928) writer, dramatist, and publicist
Pavol Dobšinský (1828-1885) collector of folklore and writer
Andrej Sládkovič (1820-1872) poet, critic, publicist, and translator
Samo Chalupka (1812-1883) poet
Jozef Cíger-Hronský (1896-1960) writer and publicist
Janko Jesenský (1874-1945) poet, prose writer, and translator
Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav (1849-1921) poet, dramatist, translator, and writer
Ján Smrek (1898-1982) poet, painter, essayist, and translator
Milan Rúfus (1928-2009) poet, literary historian, translator, and essayist
Ján Chalupka (1791-1871) writer
Milo Urban (1904-1982) writer and translator
Anton Bernolák (1762-1813) linguist and the author of the first Slovak language standard
Zuzka Zguriška (1900-1984) novelist, play-writer, and translator
Ján Kollár (1793-1852) poet, writer, archaeologist, and scientist
Margita Figuli (1909-1995) writer
Pavel Jozef Šafárik (1795-1861) philologist and poet
Ján Palárik (1822-1870) playwright
Michal Hvorecký (1976- ) writer
Ilja Zeljenka (1932-2007) composer
Ľubomír Feldek (1936- ) poet, writer, playwright, and translator
Peter Breiner (1957- ) pianist, conductor, and composer
Juraj Červenák (1974- ) writer
Hana Ponická (1922-2007) writer
Milan Richter (1948- ) writer, playwright, and translator
Miroslav Válek (1927-1991) poet, publicist, and politician
Jakob Jakobeus (1591-1645) writer, historian, and poet
Fraňo Štefunko (1903-1974) sculptor
Ľudovít Fulla (1902-1980) painter, graphic artist, illustrator, stage designer and art teacher
Eugen Suchoň (1908-1993) composers

Slovakia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Slovakia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Slovenia – Cultural Choices
Ivan Cankar (1876-1918) writer, playwright, essayist, and poet
France Prešeren (1800-1849) poet
Feri Lainšček (1859- ) writer, poet, and screenwriter
Svetlana Makarovič (1939- ) poet, writer, and illustrator
Drago Jančar (1948- ) writer, playwright, and essayist
Srečko Kosovel (1904-1926) poet
Vladimir Bartol (1903-1967) writer
Ciril Zlobec (1925- ) poet, writer, and translator
Boris A. Novak (1953- ) poet, dramaturge, and editor
Dane Zajc (1929-2005) poet and playwright
Miha Mazzini (1961- ) writer, screenwriter, and film director
Andrej Rozman Roza (1955- ) poet, writer, and actor
Uroš Krek (1922-2008) composer
Dušan Šarotar (1968- ) writer, essayist, literary critic, and editor
Marijan Lipovšek (1910-1995) composer
Berta Bojetu (1946-1997) writer, poet, and actress
Ivo Petrić (1931- ) composer
Slavoj Žižek (1949- ) psychoanalytic philosopher, cultural critic, and writer
Mladen Dolar (1951- ) philosopher, cultural theorist, film critic
Milan Komar (1921-2006) philosopher and essayist
Zvest Apollonio (1935-2009) painter and scenographer
Branka Jurca (1914-1999) writer
Ivana Kobilca (1861-1926) painter
Anton Tomaž Linhart (1756-1795) playwright and historian
Tomo Križnar (1954- ) writer
Mira Mihelič (1912-1985) writer and translator
Jože Ciuha (1924-2015) painter
Bojan Adamič (1912-1995) composer
Valentin Vodnik (1758-1819) poet
Tjaša Iris (1968- ) painter

Slovenia – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Slovenia – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Spain – Cultural Choices
Salvador Dalí (1904-1989) painter
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) painter, sculptor, ceramicist, poet, and playwright
Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) writer
Federico García Lorca (1898-1936) poet, playwright, and theatre director
Diego Velázquez (1599-1660) painter
Francisco Goya (1746-1828) painter and printmaker
Antonio Machado (1875-1939) poet
Paco de Lucía (1947-2014) virtuoso flamenco guitarist, composer, and producer
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer (1836-1870) poet and writer
Antoni Gaudí (1852-1926) architect
Lope de Vega (1560-1635) poet and writer
Juan Ramón Jiménez (1881-1958) poet
Rafael Alberti (1902-1999) poet
Joan Miró (1893-1983) painter
Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936) essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, and philosopher
José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955) philosopher, and essayist
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) pathologist, histologist, and neuroscientist
Carlos Ruiz Zafón (1964- ) writer
César Manrique (1919-1992) artist
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1612-1682) painter
Dámaso Alonso (1898-1990) poet, philologist, and literary critic
María Blanchard (1881-1932) painter
Severo Ochoa (1905-1993) physician and biochemist
Manuel Azaña (1880-1940) writer
Remedios Varo (1908-1963) painter
Alejandro Amenábar (1972- ) film director, screenwriter, and composer
Vicente Aleixandre (1898-1984) poet
Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (1856-1912) historian
El Greco /Doménikos Theotokópoulos, Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος/ (1541-1614) painter, sculptor, and architect
Manuel Castells (1942- ) sociologist

Spain – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Spain – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Sweden – Cultural Choices
Ingmar Bergman (1918-2007) director, writer, and producer
Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002) writer
Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) chemist, engineer, and innovator
Carl von Linné (1707-1778) botanist, physician, and zoologist
Johan Helmich Roman
(1694-1758) composer
Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) scientist, philosopher, and theologian
Johann August Strindberg (1849-1912) playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, and painter
Henning Mankell (1948-2015) crime writer, children’s author, and dramatist
Johan Agrell (1701-1765) composer
Carl Michael Bellman (1740-1795) poet, songwriter, composer, and performer
Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940) poet and novelist
Siv Widerberg (1931- ) poet
Tomas Tranströmer (1931-2015) poet, psychologist, and translator
Harry Martinson (1904-1978) poet and writer
Selma Lagerlöf (1858-1940) writer
Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1864-1931) poet and writer
Eyvind Johnson (1900-1976) writer
Pär Fabian Lagerkvist (1891-1974) author
Vilhelm Moberg (1898-1973) author, playwright, and historian
Britt G. Hallqvist (1914-1997) hymnwriter, poet, and translator
Ingrid Sjöstrand (1922-) writer
Håkan Nesser (1950- ) author
Liza Marklund (1962- ) crime writer
Sigrid Hjertén (1885-1948) modernist painter
John Bauer (1882-1918) painter and illustrator
Anders Zorn (1860-1920) painter
Carl Larsson (1853-1919) painter
Stieg Larsson (1954-2004) writer
Carl Milles (1875-1955) sculptor
Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) physicist and chemist

Sweden – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Sweden – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Switzerland – Cultural Choices
Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921-1990) writer, playwright, and artist
Blaise Cendrars (Frédéric Louis Sauser) (1887-1961) novelist and poet
Carl Jung (1875-1961) psychiatrist and psychotherapist
Johanna Spyri (1827-1901) novelist
Max Frisch (1911-1991) architect, playwright, and novelist
Gottfried Keller (1819-1890) poet and writer
Albert Hofmann (1906-2008) chemist
Albert Anker (1831-1910) painter
Albert Steffen (1884-1963) poet, painter, dramatist, essayist, and novelist
Erich von Däniken (1935- ) writer
Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz (1878-1947) writer
Gustave Roud (1897-1976) poet and photographer
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) clinical psychologist
Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897) historian of art and culture
Bertrand Piccard (1958- ) psychiatrist and balloonist
Félix Vallotton (1865-1925) painter
Carl Spitteler (1845-1924) poet
Karl Barth (1886-1968) theologian
Philippe Jaccottet (1925- ) poet and translator
Henry Dunant (1828-1910) social activist, the founder of the Red Cross
Jean-Luc Godard (1930- ) film director, screenwriter, and film critic
Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922) psychiatrist and psychoanalyst
Émile Jaques-Dalcroze (1865-1950) composer, musician, and music educator
Arthur Honegger (1892-1955) composer
Helen Dahm (1878-1968) artist
Jacques-Laurent Agasse (1767-1849) painter
Hans Aeschbacher (1906-1980) sculptor
Otto Abt (1903-1982) painter
Hugo Loetscher (1929-2009) writer and essayist
Ernst Ehrlich (1921-2007) philosopher

Switzerland – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Switzerland – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

Ukraine – Cultural Choices
Василь Стус /Vasyl Stus/ (1938-1985) poet and publicist
Микола Хвильовий /Mykola Khvylovy/ (1893-1933) writer and poet
Тарас Шевченко /Taras Shevchenko/ (1814-1861) poet, writer, artist, and anthropologist
Ліна Костенко /Lina Kostenko/ (1930- ) poet and writer
Володимир Винниченко /Volodymyr Vynnychenko/ (1880-1951) writer and artist
Ольга Кобилянська /Olha Kobylianska/ (1863-1942) writer
Леся Українка /Lesya Ukrainka/ (1871-1913) poet and writer
Василь Симоненко /Vasyl Symonenko/ (1935-1963) poet
Григорій Сковорода /Hryhoriy Skovoroda/ (1722-1794) poet, philosopher, and composer
Михайло Коцюбинський /Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky/ (1864-1913) author
Максим Рильський /Maksym Rylsky/ (1895-1964) poet
Богдан-Ігор Антонич /Bohdan Ihor Antonych/ (1909-1937) poet
Павло Тичина /Pavlo Tychyna/ (1891-1967) poet, interpreter, and publicist
Олена Теліга /Olena Teliha/ (1906-1942) poet
Окса́на Забу́жко /Oksana Zabuzhko/ (1960- ) novelist, poet, and essayist
Олександр Довженко /Alexander Dovzhenko/ (1894-1956) screenwriter
Марія Приймаченко /Maria Prymachenko/ (1908-1997) painter
Соломия Крушельницкая /Solomiya Krushelnytska/ (1872-1952) opera singer
Борис Грінченко /Borys Hrinchenko/ (1863-1910) writer, historian, and ethnographer
Улас Самчук /Ulas Samchuk/ (1905-1987) writer and publicist
Мирослав Скорик /Myroslav Skoryk/ (1938- ) composer
Микола Куліш /Mykola Kulish/ (1892-1937) writer and pedagogue
Валентин Сильвестров /Valentin Silvestrov/ (1937- ) composer
Іван Марчук /Ivan Marchuk/ (1936- ) painter
Катерина Білокур /Catherine Bilokur/ (1900-1961) painter
Олег Ольжич /Oleh Olzhych/ (1907-1944) poet and archaeologist
Олександр Олесь /Oleksandr Oles/ (1878-1944) writer and poet
Наталена Королева /Natalena Koroleva/ (1888-1966) writer and archaeologist
Оксана Пахльовська /Oksana Pachlowska/ (1956- ) writer
Марія Матіос /Maria Matios/ (1959- ) poet
Ukraine – European Cultural Pre-Choices
Ukraine – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

United Kingdom – Cultural Choices
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) poet, playwright
Joanne K. Rowling (1965- ) novelist, screenwriter
J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973) writer, poet, and philologist
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) naturalist and geologist
Charles Dickens (1812-1870) writer and social critic
George Orwell (1903-1950) novelist, essayist, and critic
John Locke (1632-1704) philosopher and physician
Agatha Christie (1890-1976) crime novelist, short story writer, and playwright
Sir Terry Pratchett (1948-2015) author of fantasy novels
Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948- ) composer
Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855) novelist and poet
H. G. Wells (1866-1946) writer
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) short-story writer, poet, and novelist
David Attenborough (1926- ) broadcaster and naturalist
T. S. Eliot (1888-1965) poet, essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic
William Golding (1911-1993) novelist, playwright, and poet
Stephen Fry (1957- ) comedian, actor, and writer
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) philosopher
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) philosopher
Adam Smith (1723-1790) philosopher
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) philosopher, political economist
Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) writer, novelist, and philosopher
Gustav Holst (1874-1934) composer and arranger
Anthony Burgess (1917-1993) writer and composer
Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) composer, conductor, and pianist
Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) writer
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861) poet
George Byron (1788-1824) poet
William Blake (1757-1827) poet, painter, and printmaker
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, and sociologist

United Kingdom – European Cultural Pre-Choices
United Kingdom – European Cultural Pre-Choices

 

 

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